Color Forecasting in Fashion

Color Forecasting in Fashion

Color forecasting in fashion possesses a great importance because color is an integral part of fashion and fashion design as a marketing tool. Color forecasting takes into account the color evolution, social and economic trends, consumer preferences and other influences. Colors are forecasted by synthesizing color direction from signs, hints and traces in the cultural environment. Let’s dive into the realm of color forecasting in fashion in details!


  • Appreciate color as a marketing tool
  • Understand the process of forecasting color, taking into account color evolution, social and economic trends, consumer preferences and other influences.
  • Recognize color forecasting as a coordinating factor in the apparel supply chain from fiber producer to retailer.
  • Become aware of the techniques forecasters use to synthesize color direction from signs, hints and traces in the cultural environment.


Color Forecasting

  • One of the most important function of the design director is to forecast color. Company’s fashion forecasters attend the trade shows in United States and Europe and participate in the professional color forecasting services.
  • Color forecasting begins with attending the brain storming meeting with other forecasters at an international meeting of color professionals.
  • Each participant creates a concept board proposing a direction for colors that will dominate fashion two years in the future.
  • Color decisions begin early in the product development cycle. For designer a new collection begins with the selection of a color palette. From the first step it will be from six months to nearly one year before those colors appear as a coordinated collection on the runway or in the showroom.
  • The color story combines into prints, yarn dyed fabrics, and solids and coordinated across jackets, tops, skirts, pants and dresses into a collection .
  • Professional color organizations bring together experts to collaborate on forecasts for industries such as women’s wear, men’s wear, children’s wear and residential and nonresidential interiors.
  • Forecasting for the American consumer began in 1915 with the founding of the Textile Color Card Association of America, predecessor to today’s Color Association of the United States (CAUS).
  • Group of manufacturers and retailers used textile industry specialists to select fashion shades that would be popular in the future.
  • The idea of forecasting trends in the marketplace boomed in the years after World War II. Trend merchandising entered the mass market in the early 1980s when trends became a coordinating factor for full product lines that extended beyond a single merchandise category.
  • Today, trend merchandising and color forecasting are an integral part of product development.
  • Color forecasters work 18 to 24 months in advance of the season to provide input for the designer’s decisions.  To work so far ahead, Color forecasters/experts must combine knowledge of color theories and human behavior with acute observational skills.
  • The experts spot new color directions at a trade show, on the fashion runway or in the streets.

Color Forecasters

Color forecasters forecast the colors by synthesizing the mood of the times from all the diverse elements of the culture – the economic conditions; happening in the fine arts; and music, movies and TV shows that top the charts – color forecasters track the trends and recognize new directions.

  • Color looks different depending on the fabric, so color forecasters also stay up to-date on new developments in fibers, yarns and fabrications.
  • To accomplish the task forecasters needs a background in the industry, a network of contacts and requires to travel the globe attending relevant trade shows and shopping the locales where new ideas originate.

Color in Marketing

  • Marketing fashion means positioning the product in the marketplace. Color plays a major part in positioning apparel products by attracting attention, establishing the image of the product and the brand and evoking symbolic associations.
  • Marketers use the psychological power of colors to communicate with consumers through advertising, brand logos, packaging and product colors. A consumers first impression of a new product is largely mediated by the color.
  • Some fashion companies have signature color ranges – Calvin Klein’s use neutrals and Tommy Hilfiger’s bold primary colors, but others follow seasonal color trends.
  • Emotions associated with hues and desire for individuality and personal expression through color selection influences the selling of different color products.

Color tends to identify the target market, for example – bold primaries for children’s products and trendy whimsical colors to appeal to teens. With influences from television, toy marketing and computers, children’s preferences tend towards bright colors that adults generally avoid.

Color Segmentation

Segmentation by color preferences makes it important for product developers and marketers to carefully observe the target market – watch consumers in their natural habit, read what they read, listen to their music, watch their movies and research their preferences.

96 Color wheel. Photo courtesy: Tanvir Ahamed Fahad.

Psychology of Color

  • The power of color comes from its symbolic meaning for people. Colors can represent experiences, emotions, status and other types of information that are difficult to conveying written or spoken language.
  • Some color symbols have religious origin: such as Mother Mary in Blue as a symbol of Truth and Justice. According to some mythology Green is the symbol of Fertility.


Influencing Factors in Color Forecasting

 Different factors influences the psychology of color preferences. A study showing a consistent order of color preferences in adults: the first choice was Blue, followed by Red, Green, Purple, Yellow and Orange.


  • Cultural influence: Same color is interpreted differently in different cultures. A research found that most primitive cultures distinguish meanings mainly between Black and White. If a third color is used it is always Red; the next two colors are Yellow and Green; then Blue is added.
  • Blue as protective color toward off evil spirit can be found in cultures as disparate as the middle east and Native Americans in the Southwest.

Culture & Status in Color Forecasting

  • Due to increasing global communication and trade, the color forecasters must constantly investigate the cultural symbolism and cross cultural implication of color.
  • Color preferences associated with Cultural Status – lower socio economic consumers tend to prefer simple colors and higher income people prefers more complex and newer colors.

Environment in color forecasting

 Regional and Environmental Conditions: also play a major role in color preferences. Polly Hope an artist has observed – color as a representation of a country’ personality. She finds a distinctive “color conception of a place” that results from the combination of the natural environment and the indigenous culture.

Ethnic Identity/ Geographic Region

  • Ethnic Identity or Geographic region has a relationship between color preferences. A survey in USA found White consumers were more likely to select Red, AfricanAmericans prefers Black and Hispanics Bright Blue.
  • Color preferences can arise from personal experiences – for example, a person’s positive or negative reaction to the color develops as their parents chose for them in childhood.
  • American consumers selects mid-range blue is consistently selected as the favorite color.


 Green became important in all categories of products from Tshirts to automobiles to kitchen appliances when consumers became acutely aware of environmental issues in the early 1990’s

So there is a collective color preference underlying the surface of seasonal fashion change.

Different Meanings

 In today’s complex color landscape a single color can have multiple symbolic meanings. In 1995 a survey signified the color Black as mystery, power, masculine, depressing and conservative.

Consumer Categories according to Color Preferences

  • The Cooper Marketing Group divides consumer into three categories: color forwards, color prudent and color loyal.
  • The color forward consumer enjoys being the first to try a new color but may shop for color ideas at both discounters and upscale department stores.

Consumer Categories

  • The color prudent are the main stream consumer and wait until a color has more wide spread acceptance before buying it.
  • The color loyal play it safe with color, sticking with classic blue or grey instead of choosing fashion colors.

Judgment of such mental images can help color forecasters justify their color choices and clarify the fit between color selection, product category and the consumer target.

The Language of Color

 General terms are not sufficient for communicating color information for design and manufacturing. Exact identification, matching and reproduction of colors requires an effective system with colors arranged in sequential order and identified with numbers and letters. Such systems are based on basic three characteristics of colors – hue, saturation and value.

  • Hue: refers to the color – each color system designates a set of basic colors.
  • Saturation (also called intensity or chroma) refers to the strength or purity of color.
  • Value: lightness or darkness of color
  • Tint: the term Tint applies to any color when white is added
  • Shade: refers to colors mixed with black  Tone: describes a grayed color.

Color Wheel

Seasonal Color Analysis

  • In this system color grouping relates to natures four seasons – spring and autumn have a warm undertone, summer and winter have a cool undertone.
  • The seasons are further defined by the saturation of the colors

– spring and winter colors are clear, bright and vivid;

  • – autumn and summer are more subdued and less intense.
  • The goal was to provide consumers with insight into the “right” colors to enhance their personal coloring and the “wrong” colors that should be avoided.

Colors for Four Seasons


•Cool Undertone

•Colors Clear & Bright


•Warm Undertone

•Colors Clear & Bright


•Cool Undertone

•Colors Subdued


•Warm Undertone

•Colors Subdued

Color Names

  • Changing the color of a product keeps the appeal of the new when the product itself does not change much.
  • The color forecaster works in the two worlds of color naming – writing product specifications using the notation of particular color systems and marketing using color names that coordinate with a theme.
  • Naming a color for marketing means drawing attention to its attributes by linking the color with the consumer’s perceptions.
  • For example, a light brown “café au lait”- no two people would visualize in the same way. But the theme (a delicious and deluxe cup of coffee), the season (autumn), the color key (warm), the color family (brown) and the value of the color (light) all are conveyed by the color name.
  • Even fashion ability can be captured in the color name if it recalls cultural references. In case of “café au lait” the reference is to coffee bars and gourmet coffee as high fashion concepts.
  • Naming colors takes imagination, sensitivity to fashion change across product categories, an understanding of the consumer’s perception of colors and the insight to make connections between color and the product’s end use.
  • Most color names come from associations in the environment.
  • Natural phenomena: sky blue, sunshine, grass green, snow white
  • Flora: Poppy red, moss green, mahogany, orchid.
  • Fauna: flamingo pink, robin’s egg blue, dove gray.
  • Gemstones, minerals, and metals: amethyst, lapis, amber, slate grey, copper.
  • Food & Drink: caramel, apricot, champagne, burgundy.
  • Spices: cinnamon, paprika, curry.
  • Dyes: indigo, cochineal
  • Building Materials: brick, terra-cotta, bronze.
  • Location: Capri blue, Pompeian red.
  • Today the color forecaster, the manufacturer, and the retailer routinely use color names to link fashion change to shifts in the culture.

This resource is taken from the lecture material of Mozahida Akhtar, Lecturer, Department of Textile Fashion and Design, Bangladesh University of Textiles (BUTEX).

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Medieval Period (Part 1)-Sociopolitical System & women’s clothing

Medieval Period (Part 1)-Sociopolitical System & women’s clothing

Medieval period is one of the most interesting periods for historians. Many political changes & reforms came during this period. All these reforms had an absolute impact on people’s lifestyle, dress & fashion. Which still inspire our modern fashion designers. In this series we will talk about all these things regarding medieval culture, society & political impact along with medieval clothing. Our part 1 consists Medieval Period’s short history, Social system, Sumptuary law & Women’s clothing.

History of Medieval Period:                                                

Approximately 5th century to late 15th century is regarded as Middle Ages or Medieval period by historians. However, it actually began with the fall of western roman empire & ended before renaissance. When western roman empire falls catholic churches turned into most powerful institution. The formation & rise of Byzantine empire (395-1453) started during this time. A new revolution started with the birth of Islamic Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) which created empires like Umayyad Caliphate (661-750), Abbasid Caliphate (750-1517), Fatimid Caliphate (909-1171), Ayyubid Caliphate (1171-1260), Caliphate of Cordova (929-1031) etc. Meanwhile in Europe the Franks established Carolingian Empire (800-888). Besides there were impact of Vikings, Magyars, Saracens etc in Europe. After 10th century, High middle age began where the population along with agricultural development increased which caused social systems like Manorialism and Feudalism. The clash between the empires, civil wars were common in political environment. Western European Christians tried to regain their holy land from Muslims which created holy war or Crusade. All these things created four-category people such as King, Religious preacher, Soldier or Knights and the common people. Apart from these things based on different social customs there was lot of category and dividing within people of Medieval period.

Social Systems of Medieval Period:

Medieval period saw social system like Manorialism. Manorialism was seen in rural area where legal and economic power was given to a lord of the manor. Which further updated and turned into feudalism. In feudal society the core power was within three (the nobility, the clergy, the peasantry). Feudal system is mainly a combination of legal & military customs. There were king at the highest order then Knights, Clergy & tradesman. Peasant were the bottom character in this pyramid system. In Islamic world everyone lived under caliph. There was soldier, tradesman, scientists, poets, philosophers from cities like Baghdad, Damascus, Cairo etc.

Sumptuary Law of Medieval Period:

Sumptuary law was widely applied in Europe during medieval period. The law was basically used to regulate consumption and protect the feudalism ideology through daily commodities like dress, food and luxury expenditure. Sumptuary law made it easier to make discrimination between the people according to their class. People from various class was permitted to wear or use different rank dress due to this law. Prosperous Bourgeoisie was identified based on their dress. So, the moral of the story is only the wealthy could dress in fashionable way and had more option to dress than the other. It was commonly said by the Medieval philosophers about fashion that “The King himself was a leader of fashion, the nobles followed the King, the merchants followed the nobles and the peasants were clothed in the simplest of garments.”

However, from women’s hairstyle to food everything was maintained under sumptuary law & breaking these laws could be harsh for anyone because of penalty system. But the most interesting fact is most of the countries in Europe like England, Spain, France, Italy, German etc accepted these sumptuary laws.

Women’s Clothing:

Women’s clothing had different priorities based on culture. Italian people followed their cultural heritage on the other hand German and Switzerland used heavy and detailed work in their dress. English people are always elegant with their fashion sense & same goes for France too although France was inconsistent in fashion. Medieval women mainly used to wear “Kirtles” which consisted full length tunics covering their ankles. General women used two tunics and sometimes a long cloak around the tunic. In some case short kirtles were seen to wear on tunics. A belt-like item was used to create a long-waist appearance which was regarded as “Gridle”.

A ride by the Medieval Party. Courtesy: Photo by Matheus Frade on Unsplash

A ride by the Medieval Party. Courtesy: Photo by Matheus Frade on Unsplash

By the time tunics turned were narrowed and woman gowns became more emphasized. Use of headwear of scarf was seen. Women’s cloth started to become tighter and fitting. As far as Muslim women concerns, they used to wear long tunic that reached down to their knees. If women go to crowd, they used to wear veil in their faces. However, as wool was most popular fabric at that time most of the women’s cloth including tunica was made of wool.

By Team Stalwart,

Mentor: Sumita Bhattacharja Joly (2018-1-6-007);Dept: Textile Fashion & Design

Leader: Shariful Islam Akash (2019-1-6-040);Dept: Textile Fashion & Design

Executive: Nashita Ahmed (2020-1-10-041);Dept: Environmental Science & Engineering



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Medieval Period (Part 1)-Sociopolitical System & women’s clothing

A Traditional Embroidery Art of Bengal-Nakshi Kantha

Nakshi Kantha is one of the most eminent and highly honoured folk arts of Bengal. The word Nakshi Kantha is deeply associated with the tradition of rural Bengal. In the rural houses of Bengal, women create these lushly embroidered quilts that have until recently gone unnoticed and unrecognized outside of the region. The people of this country have been using Nakshi Kantha for a very long time. These embroidered quilts have become an identity maker of the rural women, as they can find an opportunity to express desires, aspirations and sentiments through creative embroidered platform with the help of needles and threads.

History Behind Motifs of Nakshi Kantha

Although it is considered as a work of art for rural women, Nakshi Kantha art is associated with our socio-economic history and tradition. The life story of the kings, the battles, the myths, the love affairs of the men and women are mixed in every weaving of this art. Nakshi Kantha is a wonderful expression of the artistic mind of the women of the village. The embroidered surface of a Kantha contains a variety of folk motifs taken from the artisan’s locality. As the artisans are mostly from rural areas, the motifs are taken from nature, artisans everyday lives or something that they desire.

Kantha Motifs depicting Bengal culture

Bengal culture depicted on each motif.

Most of the motifs are selected mindfully and have their own meanings that carry semiotic importance as they represent an artisan’s self. Besides the multifarious motifs, the color, shape, texture, and size play important roles to convey the meaning and purpose of the craft.

Purpose & Uses

Different kinds of flowers, herbs, elephants, horses, birds, plows, boats, moon, stars, etc. are commonly noticed in these highly decorative artifact.This traditional art was practiced almost in every district of Bengal ; prominently in Rajshahi,Rangpur, Bogra, Pabna, Dinajpur, Kushtia, Faridpur, Jessore, Dhaka, Mymensingh, Cumilla and Sylhet.Because of the individuality of designs and stitches,kanthas are called by different names.Such as-

  • Barka stitch
  • Tejabi stitch
  • Bamboo leaf stitch
  • Kaito stitch
  • Bichha stitch etc.
Nakshi kantha design

Animal & Floral motif.

Hence,the utilization of Nakshi Kantha can be multifunctional-it can serve as a blanket, coverlet, baby quilt,or prayer mat,as well as many other purposes,both religious and secular. And so, there are differences in their names according to usages.For instance, Lepkantha for winter, Bayatan for use on pillows, Asantha Kantha for sitting, Dastarkhana used for food, Jainamaz kantha for prayers etc.

Reflection of an Artisans Mindset

The rainy season lasts for a long time in Bengal. When it rains cats and dogs, Bengali women are mostlty seen passing the leisure time by sewing kantha with needle thread in the betel nut chat.In making of kantha,it requires crafting skill as well as traditional knowledge,as the skill is transferred from generation to generation without receiving any institutional training. Occasionally,the artisans adopt it subconsciously through following their female family members as a part of their household activity.To create a story on the surface of the kantha, the rural women are seen working on it from dawn to dusk. With incomparable skill, they make various designs on this decorative surface.

Nakshi Kantha. Fashionnovation.

Beautiful Embroidery design. Courtesy:

For praising such amazing artifact and the dedication of the artisans,a dramatized bengali narritive named ‘Nakshi Kanthar Math’ was written by our very own ‘Palli Kabi’ Jasimuddin in 1929. After the publication of this narrative the word Nakshi Kantha became famous among the country people. We can surely recall some of the verses here-

“Spreading the embroidered quilt,

She works the lifelong night,

As if the quilt her poet were

Of her bereaved plight.

Many a joy,many a sorrow

Is written on its breast;

the story of Rupa’s life is there,

Line by line expressed.”

Beliefs & Chronicle Changes

Previously, the sentiments of the artisans were the key component to guide the process of making a Nakshi Kantha.

-The artisans’ religious belief used to be reflected in a traditional Kantha as well, depending on its intended use.

-Discarded clothes used to be the primary material for making Nakshi Kantha,as they were believed to remove the evil eye from newborn babies who were wrapped in them.

– In the rural areas, it was once a custom to give kantha to the bride at weddings as a token of love. In the evolution of time, Nakshi Kantha is no longer used for everyday use.

Though previously Kanthas were used to represent love and care for dear ones,in its present form it has assisted the artisans to empower themselves by using their traditional skills for commercial manufacturing of Nakshi Kantha. The multiple functions and meanings of these handcrafted textiles have not only allowed them to contribute to household use but also have furnished their place in history and now in the contemporary world, as they have moved into public spaces like art galleries, museums, exhibitions, and craft shops, as well as gaining a new role in personal use and even in works of literature.

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Nakshi kantha made by rural women

Rural women are making Nakshi Kantha together. Courtesy: Heifer International.

Conveying Tradition through Nakshi Kantha

Nakshi Kantha is very popular as a memento, and it is a medium through which recipients can stay attached to their origins. As there is no specific design for Nakshi Kantha sewing, one can pour ones heart out through this folkart. Many people with Bengali roots who live in different parts of the world have at least one Nakshi Kantha in their collection. Isn’t that great? At the same time, artisans have now come to see the making of Nakshi Kantha as a way of achieving economic independency. Due to its extraordinary aesthetics, it has already crossed the roadmap from a domestic craft to an extremely valued fashion object.

By Team Saturnine,

Mentor: Tanvir Ahamed Fahad; Id:2018-1-6-026

Leader: Atkia Faiza; Id:2019-1-6-020

Executive: Md. Asaduzzaman Ovi; Id:2020-1-6-020

Dept: Textile Fashion & Design



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